Audio and video
files can be embedded as links or "streamed" to be viewed
without waiting for a full download. PowerPoint presentations can
be narrated and streamed. Elaborate animations can be displayed.
Web site graphics can be interactive, reacting to input from the
keyboard or mouse.
Nowhere are the limitations of both student and equipment more critical
than with multimedia elements. Do students have the right "plug-in"
to display the multimedia? Are their modems fast enough to transfer
information? An error in judgment here can create an absolute barrier
3.3.1 When using
multimedia elements for a web site, always consider the instructional
needs of the media elements and the accessibility to end-users.
A.Be aware of
the limitations of the student's computing experience and limitation
of computers and software.
B. When special
plug-ins or software are needed to view the multimedia elements
on a web site, you must explain exactly what software and hardware
is needed to access them and instructions for installing the software
if not present.
sites designed on high quality monitors and high-speed networks
perform very differently under "real student" conditions.
file can be easily downloaded and displayed on campus networked
computers, but it can take minutes to download and display
on a student's computer connected to a network with a modem.
plug-in is freeware,
provide a link to the download site.
3.3.2 When audio
is selected as instructional media, use the audio to reinforce the
content, not as a sole carrier of the content.
A. Use the highest
quality audio possible.
B. The audio
must complement, not compete, with the information on the screen.
main benefit is a channel of information separate from the display.
It can provide the second of Pavio's (1971)"dual coding."
In addition, because of the relatively small amount of data
in an audio file, streaming audio is useable over the standard
in both commercial advertising and the video game industry
indicate the brain processes aural information faster than
visual information. The aural information should be of high
quality for maximum impact (Trout and Ries, 1984.)
studies have been done on "cognitive dissonance"
in relation to televised news. News stories where the audio
and video are not closely aligned in content score much lower
in comprehension than stories with a close correlation between
visual and aural content (Edwardson & Kent, 1992; Davies,
Barry, & Clifford, 1985; Grimes, 1991).
3.3.3 When animation
is selected as instructional media, use it to draw attention, to explain,
and reinforce the content, not to distract the user.
A. Use animation
to draw the audience's attention or alert people to new information.
B. Use animation
to indicate the function of a hot spot.
C. Use animation
to draw attention to changes from one state to another such as deforestation
D. Use animation
to demonstrate navigation in a particular direction.
E. Use animation
to create icons for actions that cannot be adequately expressed
with a flat, static picture.
one experiment, animated icons increased the comprehension of
a set of abstract toolbar actions from 62 percent to 100 percent
(Baecker, Small, and Mander, 1991). A
simple page-flip may help the student to distinguish forward
moving (looping) animations should rarely be included on a
Web page. They make it hard for your audience to concentrate
on other page content. Research suggests that movement in
our peripheral vision can dominate our attention. Research
also indicates that moving text is harder to read than static
animation using technology like Macromedia's "Flash"
is useful over home modems to explain concepts visually. However,
developing this animation requires sophisticated programming
skills, and students will need a plug-in to view the animation.
animation such as Shockwave for Authorware or Director are currently
not supported due to slow access speeds from the home.
3.3.4. Video can
be incorporated in an online course through the use of televised videos,
DVDs . However, when video
is selected as instructional media on a web site, assure that the
video is used to assist learning and teaching and that students with lower
end computers can access the video.
A. Do not use
non-streaming media files on the course web site.
the smallest media file will take several minutes to download.
Do not assume that all students have broadband capabilities with DSL or cable modems. Streaming audio, streaming PowerPoint, and more advanced multimedia
such as "SMIL" are useable over 56K modems.Check
out some Streaming
3.3.5. When desktop
videoconferencing is selected as instructional media, assure that
the videoconferencing is used to assist learning not to distract.
Students must be able to access it from their home computers.
A. It is recommended that you do not use desktop videoconferencing
for online distance learning courses, unless you are certain that
students have the capability to access this.
to limited bandwidth to the home and firewall security issues,
desktop videoconferencing is not supported at Florida Gulf
is available on campus and can be arranged through Instructional